Water, Water ... Everywhere?
- Access to clean water is becoming more scarce.


This video gives a brief introduction about the World Water Crisis.
Website: http://www.troubledwatersdoc.com/
("Troubled Waters")

"One-third of the worlds population is short of water..." Many scientists throughout the world report their concerns regarding the global water crisis. The United Nations and all its subsidiaries are also taking action towards the water issue. Andy Coghlan of NewScientist news reports that this situation was not expected until 2025.

I. Proof

Proof of this growing extremity can be exemplefied through political, economic, and environmental evidence.

A. Political
Population Action International has reported UN Medium Population Projections of 1998 has projected over 2.8 billion people in several countries in the West Asian, North and Sub-Saharan African regions will face water stress or scarcity by the year 2025. Within the next two decades population increase in West Asia will create greater demands to force thh region into water scarcity conditions. African countries, such as, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Nigeria are most likely to run out of water within the next 25 years. ("Vital")

At present 1.1 billion people lack access to clean water and 2.6 billion lack access to proper sanitation, nearly all of them in the developing countries. Yet the fact that these figures are likely to worsen remorselessly has not been properly grasped by the world community, the report says. "Despite widely available evidence of the crisis, political commitment to reverse these trends has been lacking."("MaCarthy")

This image shows the projection of water withdrawal from 1995 to 2025
This image shows the projection of water withdrawal from 1995 to 2025

B. Economic
The world water crisis can be justified with economic evidence. 1) Water scarcity in the agriculture industry is affecting the lives of the working class. 2) Companies that decide to privatize water and their water systems must deal with the risks involved because this type of water distribution may be hazardous to their customers. 3) The water shortage is causing an inflation of water prices throughout the world.

As water becomes more scarce, due to pollution and other hazardous activites caused by man, humanity may be on the verge of life threatening outcomes. "DUN-DUN-DAAAAH!"

1. Agriculture
Water plays an important role in the development of socio-economic systems. Water is a major contributor in agriculture. As population increases, the demand for water increases, thus pressuring the availability of water resources for agriculture. Water development is important in the rural economy. It has helped those in poverty maintain food supply, provide protection from flooding and drought, and has even increased job opportunities. Thus, the availability of water resources has helped reduce poverty.
"Today, agriculture accounts for 70 percent of all water use globally, up to 95 percent in several developing countries. To keep pace with the growing demand for food, it is estimated that 14 percent more freshwater will need to be withdrawn for agricultural purposes in the next 30 years." ("Coping")

2. Privatization
"An Economy Under Troubled Waters?"
is the process of transferring the production and distribution of water or water services from the public to private companies.
Treating water in this way was believed to be an economic good and help boost annual revenues. Privatization has records of improving water quality and financing needs for investment. Private companies are able to operate with the water system, without political manipulation, and provide individuals and families with basic water supplies. Even the World Bank and the World Water Council is supporting the privatization process because it would help developing countries, however they do not have a set of guidelines and principles. This act resulted in violent protests in Bolivia, Paraguay, South Africa, the Philippines, and other globalizational councils worldwide. The fact that privatization eliminates the government’s control of the water system, the public is unaware of their water resources. In result, many concerns arise from privatization. Privatization also has a record of issues and default. Managing water in this way damages the ecosystem, increases the chance of a foreign power to gain control of fundamental natural resources, and excludes the public of decision making about their own resources. (“Gleick”)
For example, private companies most often violate standards of operation, and engage in price fixing without many consequences. This leads to water stress among the poor populations of these areas, causing people to drink water that is often very contaminated and hazardous to their health (even though case studies have shown that privatized water can be very contaminated as well).” (“VanOverbeke”)

3. Water Prices
Water prices have increased throughout the world. The prices have been influenced by the cost of transportation from its sources to the buyers, the demand of water, and price subsidies. Rates have varied in different nations depending on the availabilty on water. For example, water rates have increased in the United States by 27%, 32% in the United Kingdom, 45% in Australia, 50% in South Africa, and 58% in Canada. ("Clark")

C. Environmental
  • "Water, water everywhere, Nor any drop to drink." ("MaCarthey")
  • More than 2.6 billion people lack acess to adequate sanitation systems. ("Water Crisis: World Water Council")
  • The diversion of H2O out of the river removes H2O for healthy in-stream ecosystems
  • Nuclear and fossil fuel power plants drink over 185 billion gallons of H2O per day.

  • Hydroelectric turbines produce almost one-fifth of the world's electricity. ("Gleick")
  • Agriculture is drawing more water from the aquifer than percolates back down through rainfall and runoff. The water table drops lower, making it impossible or financially impractical to pump water from below. Nearly 1 million acres of irrigated corn in Kansas drink up nearly 1 million acre-feet of water per year, according to state statistics.("Rothschild")
  • Irrigating crops in hot dry countries accounts for 70 per cent of all the water use in the world.("MaCarthy")
  • Although water is the commonest stuff on earth, only 2.53 per cent of it is fresh, while the rest is salt. And of the freshwater, two thirds is locked up in glaciers and permanent snow cover. What is available, in lakes, rivers, aquifers (ground water) and rainfall run-off, is now increasingly coming under pressure from several directions at once.("MaCarthy")

Water is being used in large sums extremely fast. In Shijiaahuang, China. Hundreds of feet below ground, the primary water source for this provincial capital of more than two million people is steadily running dry. The underground water table is sinking about four feet a year. Municipal wells have already drained two-thirds of the local groundwater. ("Yardley")

Due to global warming effects on water the Cetaceans will encounter changes in sea temperatures, declining salinity because of the melting of ice and increased rainfall, sea level rise, loss of polar habitats, and a huge decline of krill populations in key areas. Krill are the whale’s primary sense of food intake, which may not be there for much longer because they are so dependent on sea ice. “Whales, dolphins and porpoises have some capacity to adapt to their changing environment,” said Mark Simmonds, International Director of Science at WCDS. “But the climate is now changing at such a fast pace that it is unclear to what extent whales and dolphins will be able to adjust, and we believe many populations to be very vulnerable to predicted changes.” Climate change impacts are currently greatest in the Arctic and the Antarctic. Cetaceans that rely on polar, icy waters for their habitat and food resources – such as belugas, narwhal, and bowhead whales – are likely to be dramatically affected by the reduction of sea ice cover. ("Science Daily")

II. Causes

A. Political
There are many political causes as to why communities do not have safe drinking water. According to a UN water report in 2006, "Governance systems, it says, 'determine who gets what water, when and how, and decide who has the right to water and related services.'" Colleen Stiles of the Denver Post reports that the knowledge and technology are available to be used, however, government corruption limits this usage.
More than 215 major rivers and 300 groundwater basins and aquifers are shared by two or more countries, according to Maude Barlow, author of The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right to Water. These shared water sources make tensions unbelievably high between countries. She says, growing shortages and unequal distribution leads to disagreements which can be violent and is a huge security risk in some region. John Reid, former defense secretary of Britain warns of coming "water wars."

B. Economic
Water in global trade seems to be growing fast. As populations keep growing and rain being more and more unpredictable, investors are lining up for possible money making possibilities. The way this may happen is still unknown. Suspicion holds that maybe, like in the U.S., water rights may just be sold and/ or traded as the state manages it.

Unclean water causes millions of death mainly among children that is preventable each year.{ SERAGELDIN}
15% of the water owned by the government maybe given to farmers in California. If this happens and the water shortages in California. Continues thin there irrigation pumps will run no matter what which mean less water for people in cretin parts in California. (
Calif. farmers)

In China 200,000 people had their water cut off because of chemical waste in the water for 40 hours. It was reported by the China business newspaper that "The residental water supply from the Xinyi River had an unusual smell and was found to have levels of ammonia nitrogen far above national standards. (Political leaves)

C. Environmental
external image 040516_landscape_hmed_5p.h2.jpgSource: Picture from Joe Cavaretta / AP. (Behold)
Water shortage is dropping due to droughts and temperatures are growing. For example, the Colorado River can expect a rapid increase of temperatures that may melt snow packs very early. Many residents rely on the Colorado River for water. 25 million residents in the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming use the Colorado River for water. In conclusion, water shortage and availibilty is dropping since the populations of these areas/states are increasing (“Behold”).

According to William,”river flows, winter air temperatures, and snow packs are due to human caused climate changes”. In other words, the population is growing and global warming is changing weather patterns. (William)

One-sixth of the worlds’ population may be affected by water shortage due to global warming. For example, an area in California called the Sierra Nevada (main water source area) had snowmelt and that kept the water in the farm areas irrigated and this may change due to the climate. Models showed that the degree in temperatures may change to about 1 – 3 degrees by the year 2050 and due to this; more rain will come down rather than snow in the area. According to Barnett, he stated “I think this will be one of the first greenhouse gas-related problems that will fall on the civilized world.” (Hall)

The United Nations warned that coastlines may be polluted in the next 50 years. Problems that affect this are people throwing wastes into the water and mostly these people come from low-class are regions. Pollution to water may also affect crops people plant and also rivers and lakes may also shrink. Most of this problem due to water pollution lies in developing countries (Africa for example) where countries like these need to have a better water irrigation system. Coral reefs, grass beds, fish are also in a severe zone where a lot of pollution is occurring destroying them. According to a report made by NASA and the World Health Organization, they report that more than a billion people will be affected by water shortage by the year 2050 and also that costal plains will degrade from pollution where about 1 million people live. (Vergano)
(Source: Chronicle Graphic.) (Hall)

III. Effects

A. Political
The effects of overpopulation, in combination with the scarcity of water, have led to political problems. There are only 260 river systems world wide, which has led to water related conflicts between countries ("Water Crisis"). Rivers often serve as geographic markers for boundaries between nations. This furthers water tensionsand has led to disputes and warfare. The Tigris-Euphrates River System has been a location of conflict for
Iraq, Iran, and Syria. In 1974, Iran set up troops on the Syrian border, threatening to destroy one of Syria's dams on the Euphrates River. Hungary and Czechoslovakia had a dispute over the Danube River in 1992 over dam construction on the river. World Band Vice President, Isamil Serageldin, in reference to this issue predicted, "Many of the wars of the 20th century were about oil, but wars of the 21st century will be over water." ("Water Crisis")

Complications over water supply have not only occured between separte nations. In the small town of
McCloud, the California Water Wars demonstrates an example of how cities in the United States are fighting over water supply. However, this is a conflict not based on water scarcity, but the bottling of water. At the foot of Mt. Shasta, the townspeople believe Nestle is stealing their water supply by signing a contract that enables Nestle to build a massive bottled water plant in McCloud, California. Some feel that this decision has been "shoved down their throats" and have petitioned against it. Others feel that it is business and there will be plenty of water to go around. (Dan)

external image image?id=20284&rendTypeId=4
B. Economic
Effects of water quality, water scarcity, and poor infrastructure can already be seen nationally in the
United States. In recent times, infrastructural problems with water piping have cropped up in cities like Chicago, New York City, Denver, Cleveland, and Wawarsing. Piping in these cities, often created in the 1800’s and earlier years, are quickly deteriorating and leaks have been springing up, causing basement flooding in cities like Wawarsing, New York (Long) and damage to roads and interstates. Chicago, Denver and Cleveland have both experienced damage to roadway systems and infrastructure due to similar piping leaks and breaks. For cities to update the pipes and deal with destruction caused by breaks, estimations of cost range from $277 billion by The Environmental Protection Agency to $480 billion by water industry engineers (Long). To pay for these costs, increases in water pricing would need to be put in place, affecting the US water consumers. Rising prices on water rates to fix damaged infrastructure measure between $550 and $7,000 per house (Long). Today, to fix damaged piping in the US, around $10.4 billion is spent yearly.

Over the past few years there has been a drought in
Australia. This drought has caused many problems for their agriculture industry and in turn there economy. Australia’s production of their key crop has dropped more than 1/3. This is causing Australia’s economy to slow down. It is now at the slowest rate that it has been at in more than three years. This drought has been labeled Australia’s worst drought in centuries and is predicted to cause more problems for their economy this year. (Drought)

Water scarcity is not only causing problems for economies globally but also nationally. There have also been agriculture water cuts in the
Sacramento Valley. Irrigation water is needed for their crops and if they did not have this it would not only hurt their economy but also the economies of the surrounding areas. IIn a normal year with no drought they still need supplement ground water. Without this supplement ground water they lose about $32 million. A lot of these counties that are experiencing these losses depend greatly on their agriculture industry. (Lee)

external image amidst-scorching-heat-an-elde2.jpg
Picture From Thongma
C. Environmental

The Mid-Atlantic coast of the
United States and the Chesapeake Bay (modified from Ellison and Nichols, 1975).

The Chesapeake Bay and its network of watersheds is suffering due to water pollution. The
Chesapeake Bay watershed, an area that spans over 64,000 square miles, is the largest estuary in the United States. Currently, the Chesapeake Bay and watershed is experiencing loss of habitat because of excess nutrients and chemical contaminants polluting its waters and because of increased sediment deposit due to runoff from agricultural and developed lands ("Facts"). The quality of the water in the Chesapeake Bay has led to reduction in bay grasses, leading to the decline in the number of Blue Crabs found in the Chesapeake Bay ("Blue Crab"). Another aquatic species suffering due to habitat loss and pollution is the Eastern Oyster . The massive decline in oyster life in the Chesapeake Bay is backed by data collected by the Chesapeake Bay Program , “In the late 19th century, the native oyster population could filter a volume of water equal to that of the entire Bay every three to four days; today's depleted population takes nearly a year to filter the same volume ("Eastern").” The Bay oysters also create oyster reefs, which provide important habitat for fish and marine life including sea sponges and crabs. Water pollution and over harvesting are the main causes behind the loss of these oyster reefs, which according to information The collected by The Chesapeake Bay Program, “…can create 50 times the hard surface area of an equally sized flat mud bottom ("Eastern").” Therefore oyster reefs make 50 times more habitat for important marine life. Pollution has further affected the eastern oyster populations by causing the diseases MSX and Dermo, which have been killing off the already minuscule population of oysters.

Elizabeth River, a tributary to the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, is also suffering the effects of the water crisis.

Chesapeake Bay Program identified the
Elizabeth River system as a Region of Concern as it is one of the most highly polluted bodies of water in the entire Bay watershed (Richards).” An area of specific concern is the Southern Branch. Contaminated by foreign sediment, this area is devoid of river bottom life and fish in the region have been found with cancers originating from toxins in the water (Rogers).

Great Lakes of northermost United States have long been an area of concern for environmentalists. Lake Erie, located in Ohio, became so polluted that in the 1960's the lake was called dead. The pollution in the lake drew so thick that in 1969, Cuyahoga River, a tributary to Lake Erie, caught fire. Urban industry sprawls along Lake Erie and industrial waste dump is common in the lake. Since its declared death, Lake Erie has made a come back, but concerns are growing as the lake appears to be on a declining trend. Proof of this is found in a form of algae that grows only when there is sediment and chemical imbalance. This algae is growing in Lake Erie today. ("Water Pollution") Below is a link to a National Geographic video with more information in pollution in Lake Erie.


However, these problems are affecting world wide populations. The Drilling of wells at frequent rates is causing the water table to sink lower and lower every year. The capital of
Yemen has sunk nearly twenty feet (Brown). In China, similar sinking patterns can be found. Around roughly four feet each year, the water table is sinking. Alarmingly, nearly five-sixths of the wetlands in all of have dried up completely. The many rivers of China are also drying out. Already, The Yongding, Xia, Yishui, and Hutuo rivers have run dry (Yardley). In Africa, Lake Tana, which feeds the Blue Nile, is shrinking. Farmers must depend on food aid because they don’t have adequate water to supply their crops (Thomson).

IV. Future


this is a 2 minute clip showing viewers how theworld would be without clean, safe water
Future of Water
January 05, 2008.

A. Political

external image wsci_02_img0262.jpg
This map shows all of the 261 international basins of the world. An international basin is defined as all territory contributing to a stream that has at least one tributary crossing an international boundary. (Source: Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database, Oregon State University. Greg Fiske and Becci Dale Anderson, cartographers.)

The Importance of Water Regulates The importance of water consumption and sanitaion has spread around the world. The World Water Council has created a project to raise awareness of political issues concerning water consumption, sanitation and how it can be used for politics. With the last 50 years, Hydropolitics has reported only 37 disputes over water that involved violence; majority of hydrocentered events and discussions are held verbally. Cooperation has weighted over [conflict] concerning "international water sources." Cooperations have established water regimes through treaties that were proven stable and bring high optimism. This is just a small amount of information to prove the importance of why we need to be concerned about our prevalent water supply.

"Water Scarcity"
"Water Scarcity"

B. Economic

It is expected that by 2025, forty countries in the regions are going to experience water scarcity. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals number 7 is to bring substantial economic gains, each $1 invested would yield an economic return of between $3 and $34, depending on the region. (WHO) Households with improved services suffer less morbidity and mortality from water-related diseases.The benefits would include an average global reduction of 10 % in diarrheal episodes. It is predicted that health-related costs avoided would reach $7.3 billion per year. Also, the annual global value of adult working days gained, because of less illness, would rise to almost $750 million. Better services resulting from the relocation of a well or borehole to a site closer to user communities and better educational & Productive opportunities when they have water and sanitation facilities nearby for females. An increase in disposable household income and in demand for agricultural products, and development in tourism would occur. ("Millenium")

This picture displays the African nations that are expected to be experiencing water stress and the ones that are expected to be facing water scarcity by 2025. The littler graphic displays that as the world's population continues to increase, a higher proportion of the population will be facing water scarcity and water stress.
This picture displays the African nations that are expected to be experiencing water stress and the ones that are expected to be facing water scarcity by 2025. The littler graphic displays that as the world's population continues to increase, a higher proportion of the population will be facing water scarcity and water stress.

C. Environmental

Millennium Development Goals, Target 7, ensure environmental sustainability. It would integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies, programmes, and reverse loss of environmental resources. It would reduce biodiversity loss and by 2015 it would halve the proportion of people without sutainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. An improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers would occur by 2020. By 2025, 1.8 billion people will live in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity. Also by the year 2025, it is estimated that nearly 230 million Africans will be facing water scarcity, and 460 million will live in water-stressed countries. Due to irrigation and demands of agriculture, water usuage has increased by six times in the past one-hundred years and will double again by 2050.

In Conclusion
Currently many people are suffering and have lost their lives by drinking water that is not safe. The amount of deaths in a year from dehydration and water-related diseases are increasing everyday. This is only a description of now and not the future. According to water organizations such the World Water Council and the UN, it is said by 2025, 1 800 million people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world population could be under stress conditions. Wars will no longer be about oil but about water. Political fights have already begun; Candidate Bill Richardson said (and allegedly took back) "I want a national water policy. We need a dialog between states to deal with issues like water conservation, water reuse technology, water delivery and water production. States like Wisconsin are awash in water.” Michigan Congressman Vern Ehlers responded negatively: "I would suspect we'd call up the militia and take up arms, we feel that serious about it."(Issues Survey: The Future of Water) Because of the scarcity of water businesses and things that rely on water or use water will start to decline; companies and things such as GE, car manufacturers, paper manufacturers and humans. Due to the reckless actions of humans and not rationing clean drinkable water the population of all living things will slowly decline until there is no life left on Earth.

V. Solutions

Temporary Solutions

Blue Revolution
In the 1960's there was a massive shortage of food and starvation was spreading rapidly. Then the idea of a Green Revolution came about and new ideas to improve agriculture and even more so increase the production of food. Now theres an even bigger problem arising, water shortage. With a Blue Revolution maybe people can get hooked on conserving water and helping the world. A part of the blue revolution is spreading ideas and giving helpful tips to go about participating such as:

Drip irrigation:

More energy efficient than conventional methods of irrigation because it prevents seepage and runoff by delivering water straight to the roots of plants. Drip irrigation

"No Impact Man":

Colin Beavan and his family are conducting a kind of social and economic experiment in which they try to make as little impact on the environment as possible, all while living in the midst of New York City (Beavan). The basic principle behind this idea is very simple, and one that in light of the recent GO GREEN campaigns has become increasingly popular: make small changes to our daily lives in order to decrease the greater effect that we have on mother nature. However, in the Beavan family's case, those changes are most drastic.
Colin has broken down his experiment into three stages. The first of these stages is to live without creating any wastes at all, which means nothing packaged or disposable. The second of these stages is to make the best environmental choices in their food selection, and the third is to reduce consumption to the bare minimum and maintain that level of consumption (Beavan).
While not everyone can make changes the way Colin and his family have, they set a great example for the rest of us to recycle what we can, buy environmentally friendly products, and invest in energy saving light bulbs or hybrid cars. We can all make a difference.

Solar Water Disinfection:

Solar Water disinfection is an easy and widely available way to disinfect the unclean water in developing countries on small scale. This form of disinfection would be hard to continue on a governmental scale but individual households can easily maintain fresh drinking water from this system. The first step is to obtain a PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) bottle and rinse thoroughly. After this pour relatively clear water, as the more sediment and 'large' substances in the water the harder it is for the system to work, in the bottle and allow it to sit in the sun for at least 6 hours. The combination of heat and UVA rays from the sun kill the microorganisms in the water and make it safe to drink. (How)

Water with large amounts of sediment or other light blocking substances must either be heated to at least 50 degrees C ( 122 degrees F) or processed through a filtration system first to remove the sediment. One possible filtration system is a Reverse Osmosis filtration system which can cost close to 400 dollars. This type of filtration system can filter as much as 45 gallons of water per a day. (RO-45)

Different Types of Filters:

There are many different types of filters, and in general systems for purification of water, and each one has their own specialties and failing points. For example a distiller unit removes the heavy metals from a source of water put into where as an ultraviolet disinfection unit removes mainly the biological contaminates from the water. Knowing what you need removed allows you to acquire the proper filtration system for your water. For common filtration systems and what they remove go to to this list. (Consumer)

Listing of Water Organizations:

This is nothing more than a simple list of organizations that are trying to help improve water quality around the world. Most appear to be based in and around America but a few are international organizations trying to regulate water use. Each link goes to the homepage of that organization and this list therefore allows for easy contact if any is needed.

Everyone is capable of saving water and controlling how much they use in order to help the water crisis and the world in general. Some ways to help the problem are:
  • Using more efficient household appliances, like low-flow toilets and shower heads, washing machines, dishwashers and faucets.
  • Using rain catchers or well water to water plants and grass.
  • Collect excess water used during everyday activities and use it for watering household plants.
  • Irrigating more efficiently by being more conservative and utilizing the water-saving technologies available.
  • Simply using as little water as possible during any water consuming activites, like turning off the water when brushing your teeth or even brushing your teeth in the shower.

    Just one of the many solutions we can used to relegate our water supply! ("Recycling")
    Recycling Water -Youtube
    Water Use it Wisely

VI. Works Cited

"Beating the water crisis" October 1996. April 27, 2008.

Beavan, Colin. "No Impact Man." 2007. 27 Apr. 2008

Calif. farmers negotiate U.S. water deal” July. 31, 2007. April 27, 2008

Barlow, Maude. The Global Water Crisis and the Coming
Battle for the Right to Water. October 16, 2007. April 16, 2008. <www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/5016>.

Behold the incredible shrinking
Colorado River.” MSNBC News. February 2007. April 15, 2008.

"Beneath Booming Cities, Chinas Future Is Drying Up." Yardley, Jim.
September 28, 2007. April 24, 2008.

"Blue Crab."
Chesapeake Bay Program . 19 Feb. 2008. 20 Apr. 2008 &lt; http://www.chesapeakebay.net/bluecrab.aspx?menuitem=19367 >

Brown, Lester R. "Water Deficits Growing In Many Country."
Great Lakes Directory . 9 Aug. 2002. 22 Apr. 2008 &lt; http://www.greatlakesdirectory.org/zarticles/080902_water_shortages.htm >

"Chesapeake Bay News".
Chesapeake Foundation. Febuarary 2007. 22 April 2008. <http://www.chesapeakebay.net/news_2007assessment.aspx

Clark, Edwin H. "Water Prices Rising Worldwide." Earth Policy Institute.
7 March, 2007. 24 April 2008. <[[http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2007/Update64.htm%3E.%3C/span%3E%3C/span|http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2007/Update64.htm>.</span]] >

Coghlan, Andy. NewScientist. 21 August 2006. 21 April 2008.

"Consumer Guide to Water Filters." NRDC. 8 Apr. 2005. Natural Resources Defense Council. 24 Apr. 2008 <http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/gfilters.asp>.

"Consumption of Water Resources." Pace University, White Plains, New York. 13 Apr. 2008

"Coping with Water Scarcity"[PDF]. UN-Water Thematic Initiatives. Aug 2006.
21 April 2008. <ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/waterscarcity.pdf>

"Cost of Water Shortage." Guardian news and media limited. 4-9-08. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2006/aug/17/water.internationalnews>.>

"Could Drinking Water Scarcity Lead to Ecological Crisis?" Barlow, Maude
13 Mar. 2008. 22 Apr. 2008

"Dan, Jonathan Producer Water Wars. video.
30 June 2006, 23 April 2008 <http://www.californiaconnected.org/tv/archives/422 >

"Danube River: Austria ." Online Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
24 Apr. 2008 < http://www.britannica.com/ebi/art-66996>.</http://www.britannica.com/ebi/art-66996></span >

National Drought Mitigation Center University of Nebraska-Lincoln. 9 Apr. 2008.

"Eastern Oyster."
Chesapeake Bay Program . 21 Feb. 2008. 21 Apr. 2008 &lt; http://www.chesapeakebay.net/oysters.aspx?menuitem=19368 >

Ellison and Nichols. The
Mid-Atlantic Coast of the United States and the Chesapeake Bay . 1975. Fact Sheet 102-98. 21 Apr. 2008.

"Facts &amp; Figures-About the Chesapeake Bay."
Chesapeake Bay Program . 19 Feb. 2008. 21 Apr. 2008 &lt; http://www.chesapeakebay.net/factsandfigures.aspx?menuitem=14582 >

"Future of Water". YouTube.
05 January 2008. 22 April 2008. <http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3161824731504009107&q=documentaries+on+water+issues&ei=AJgOSOTaOY-eqgLo24SrBA

Gleick, Peter H., Gary Wolf, Elizabeth L. Chalecki, and Rachel Reyes. "The New Economy of Water" [PDF]. Pacific Institute. Feb 2002.
21 April 2008. <http://www.pacinst.org/reports/new_economy_of_water/new_economy_of_water.pdf.

Hall, Carl T. "Global Warming Study Forecasts More Water Shortages." SFGate.
17 Nov. 2005. 22 Apr. 2008

"How Do I Use SODIS?" Sodis. 26 Oct. 2006. Swiss Federal Institute for Enviromental Science and Technology. 24 Apr. 2008 <http://www.sodis.ch/Text2002/T-Howdoesitwork.htm>.

Hudon, Eric. "An Economy Under Troubled Waters". Flickr.com.
15 March 2008. 22 April 2008. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/erichudon/2344470970/.

"Hydropolitics." Aaron T. Wolf.

"Issues Survey: The Future of Water".
26 November 2007. 26 April 2008.

Lake Tana From Space (April 1991) . Answers.Com . 23 Apr. 2008 < http://www.answers.com/topic/lake-tana?cat=travel >

Long, Colleen. “Deteriorating Water Systems Are Clouds on the Horizon.” The Virginian Pilot
11 April 2008. News 2, 8.

"Millennium_Development_Goals." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
20 Apr. 2008. <http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Millennium_Development_Goals

"Pollution leaves 200,000 people without tap water for 40 hours in eastern
China" July 4 2007. April 27, 2008. < [[http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/07/04/asia/AS-GEN-China-Water-Shutdown.php%3C/span%3E%3C/span%3E%3C/span%3E%3C/span%3E%3C/span%3E%3C/span%3E%3C/span%3E%3C/span%3E.|http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/07/04/asia/AS-GEN-China-Water-Shutdown.php.]]SERAGELDIN, ISMAIL [Your URL doesn't work]

"Recycling Water." YouTube 28 Sept. 2008. 24 Apr. 2008

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